Climate change, health & the economy


Climate change denial has been a persistent trend over the

past several decades throughout statehouses and the highest legislative

chambers. Even our commander in chief, who early on was dubbed the "greenest

U.S. president ever," wouldn't touch the topic during his State of the Union

address this year.

But doubt and inaction come at our own peril. So says a

humbling new book, Changing Planet,

Changing Health.

In their analysis, authors Paul Epstein, a physician and

world expert on climate and health, and Dan Ferber, an award-winning science

journalist (and NUVO contributor), explore how a warming planet damages not

only our health but also our struggling economy.

Dr. Epstein is associate director of Harvard Medical School's Center

for Health and the Global Environment, and has worked with the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For years, he's been at the

forefront of the global warming awareness movement. He and Ferber advocate

public works programs to transform energy usage; in a background interview on

their book's promotional site, they describe the revamp as "a global health insurance


During a recent conversation with NUVO, Epstein offered

insight to why Indiana residents should be concerned about climate change,

explaining how coal hurts both our lungs and our bottom line.

NUVO: Your

book covers a number of ways that climate change impacts health. What's the

number one issue related to climate change that has the biggest effect on


Epstein: There are

several direct pathways from climate change to health. The largest impact will

come from changes in the ecological systems. Talking about forests, marine life

as well as our crops, our food, our air — they are all dependent on a

healthy environment. That's my greatest concern.

NUVO: Climate

change can be a difficult, abstract concept for people to understand. Do you

find that discussing the issue in terms of personal health makes it easier to


Epstein: I do.

This is the whole motivation for setting up the Center for Health and the

Global Environment at Harvard Medical School. It's to translate abstract and

sometimes intangible issues into what's happening in your backyard and to your

children, and how that's affected by climate change.

NUVO: Your

book details the time you spent working in Mozambique and other places around

the world. How do the actions of people in the U.S. affect health in other


Epstein: The U.S.

is a major contributor to climate change through our greenhouse gas emissions.

These are the gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. We've known that since

the early 1800s. We also know that this warmth is going into the oceans. Since

the 1950s, oceans have accumulated

22 times as much heat as the atmosphere. That's what increases evaporation

— a warmer atmosphere holds more water vapor.

The whole water cycle is revved up — water is warming,

ice is melting, water vapor is rising. So we're seeing more intense rains, and

they lead to flooding and waterborne disease like E. coli and

cryptosporidiosis. The warming itself is affecting infectious disease.

In the highlands, we're seeing this dramatically where

glaciers are retreating, plant communities are migrating upward, mosquitoes are

now circulating at high altitudes. The temperature is what affects the

conditions conducive to transmission, in terms of changes in latitude and

altitude, whereas the extreme weather events — droughts and floods

— are related to diseases like dengue fever, malaria and waterborne


NUVO: Gov.

Mitch Daniels promotes "Hoosier coal," or "clean coal" — we get about 95

percent of our electricity from coal. Consequently, Indiana is the 4th largest

emitter of CO2 in the U.S. What are the health costs of this kind of thinking?

Epstein: We just

published a paper, called "Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal."

There we look at the health impacts for coal mining regions, particularly in

Appalachia with what is happening with mountaintop removal. We look at the

emissions from air pollution that causes cardiac illness. We look at the impacts

of mercury. We look at the land and then the climate impact.

This adds up to hundreds of billions of dollars in terms of

lives lost. It concludes with the idea that clean coal and carbon capture and

storage do not deal with any of the life-cycle costs upstream.


should Indiana's "fiscal conservatives" be concerned about these costs

associated with climate change?

Epstein: Look at

asthma, for example. Asthma has more than doubled in this country since 1980.

More CO2 increases the pollen production from ragweed, to early flowering trees

— it makes the pollen more allergenic, and some mushrooms produce more

spores. On the other hand, we have particulate matter that the pollen attaches

to and together they clog the lungs and help deliver the allergens.

Then there's ozone and photochemical smog that's increased

during heat waves from tailpipe emissions mixing with other gases. The

aggregate we're seeing is that spring, summer, and fall last two to four weeks

longer than they did several decades ago, depending on latitude. The aggregate

of climate change is extending the allergy and asthma season.

It concerns all of us, children and adults.

Climate change is responsible for lost productivity, lost school days, and

costs us dearly in health costs.

Costs associated

with extreme events are [also] skyrocketing. In the '80s, it was about $4

billion a year attributable to weather-related extreme events. That jumped

ten-fold to $40 billion a year in the '90s, and now we're consistently seeing

costs in the $200 billion range from weather-related disasters. This is

absorbed by some of the financial community with higher rates. It is taxing us.

Not only is it

affecting our lives, but it's affecting us

economically. Increasing instability threatens to bring more extremes, which is

bad for health, bad for the economy, bad for political stability.


were leading the effort to raise global warming awareness when people weren't easily

convinced about the scientific findings. How does that compare to your experience

with today's naysayers in the political sphere and the general public?

Epstein: There has

been a well-orchestrated, well-funded campaign to keep this drumbeat of doubt

alive for people living in the United States particularly.

The extreme amount of flooding incidents in this country and

winter extremes and storms increasing their strength, if not in frequency

— these are changes that we're all seeing. It's amazing that more and

more is happening that shows us the climate has changed, while more and more of

our political debate gets mired in doubt about what we're actually seeing.

NUVO: Your book

discusses London's citywide cleanup in the 1800s through infrastructure

improvements. What role do cities play in countering climate change in the 21st


Epstein: Here's a

set of healthy solutions, starting with vehicles, electric vehicles of all

sorts — planes, buses and trains, plugged into a cleanly powered

smart grid, and then combined with healthy cities programs. By that I mean

green buildings, rooftop gardens, tree-lined streets, biking lanes, walking

paths, open space, permeable surfaces, smart growth, and public transport.

All of these can make the cities healthy and well-adapted to

the climate we're experiencing, create jobs and stimulate industries, and push

these climate-friendly technologies into the global marketplace.


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